CANCER ITS STAGES AND TYPES
WHAT IS CANCER?
Cancer is a disease that causes some of the body’s cells to accumulate uncontrollably and disperse to
other parts of the body. but in actuality, it is not a disease it is a condition.
Cancer can start anywhere in the body, we all are made up of trillions of cells. normally human cells grow
and multiply to form new cells. When cells grow old or become defective, they have been replaced by a
new one. This process is called cell division. But sometimes this process changes now abnormal and
unwanted cells grow rapidly, these abnormal cells accumulated at a place and form a tumor that can be
cancerous or not cancerous.
TYPES OF CANCER
cancer are categorized by the organ where it spread or cell-specific.
Carcinomas are formed by epithelial cells, which are the cells that cover the inside and outside surfaces
of the body.
Sarcomas are cancers that arise in bone and soft tissues, like muscle, fat, blood vessels, lymph vessels,
Leukemias are the Cancers that start in the blood-forming tissue of the bone marrow are called
leukemias. These cancers do not form solid tumors.
Lymphoma is cancer in lymphocytes, white blood cells, T cells, or B cells. These are immune cells that
protect us from other diseases.
This is plasma cell cancer which is another type of immune cell. The abnormal plasma cells, called
myeloma cells, build up in the bone marrow and form tumors in bones all through the body.
Melanoma is a cancer that starts in melanocyte cells, which are the cells that make melanin pigment that
gives skin its color. Most melanomas form on the skin, but melanomas can also form in other pigmented
tissues like eyes.
Types of cancer are usually named for the organs where the cancers start. like liver cancer starts in the
liver, and mouth cancer starts in the mouth.
Skin Cancer begins in the skin and results from the unnatural growth of unwanted skin cells. The main
types of skin cancer are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. You can reduce
your risk of skin cancer by restricting or ignoring exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Check your skin
for skeptical changes that can help you to detect skin cancer at its earliest stages. Early-stage detection
of skin cancer gives you the greatest chance for successful skin cancer treatment.
Types of skin cancer
there are three main types of skin cancer:
The crust contains three main types of cells:
Squamous cells are just below the outer surface and function as the skin’s inner lining.
Basal cells, produce new skin cells, next to the squamous cells.
Melanocytes — which produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its normal color — are located in the
lower part of your epidermis. Melanocytes produce more melanin when you’re in the sun to help protect
the deeper layers of your skin.
Symptoms of skin cancer
What does skin cancer look like? flat patches in the skin, often with a rough, scaly, reddish, or brown
surface. this is the main symptom of skin cancer, if you have any problem looking like this we awear.
A flat lesion with a lamellate, crusted surface
A large brownish spot with a darker dot
A mole that changes in color, size,
A small lesion with an irregular border and portions that appear red, pink, white, blue, or blue-black A
painful lesion that itches or burns
Causes of skin cancer
The main cause of skin or any other cancer is a mutation in DNA, Largely damage to DNA in skin cells
results from ultraviolet (UV) radiation found in sunlight.
treatment options for skin cancer and the precancerous skin lesions known as actinic keratoses will vary,
depending on the size, type, depth, and location of the lesions. Small skin cancers limited to the surface
of the skin may not require treatment beyond an initial skin biopsy that removes the entire growth.
Freezing. the doctor may destroy actinic keratoses and some small, early skin cancers by freezing them
with liquid nitrogen also called cryosurgery.
Excisional surgery. This treatment is suitable for any type of skin cancer. the doctor peels excise the
cancerous tissue and a surrounding area of healthy skin, some healthy tissues also accommodate
removal around these cancerous tissues.
Mohs surgery. This is the process for enormous, chronic, or difficult treatment of skin cancers, which
may include both basal and squamous cell carcinomas. this procedure is often used in areas where it’s
necessary to conserve as much skin as possible, such as on the nose. your doctor removes the skin
growth layer by layer, examining each layer under the microscope until no abnormal cells remain. under
this surgery, cancerous cells are removed without taking an excessive amount of surrounding healthy
Curettage and electrodesiccation or cryotherapy. After removing most of the growth, your doctor
squeezes away layers of cancer cells using a device with a circular blade (curet). An electric needle
eliminates any remaining cancer cells. with this procedure, liquid nitrogen can be used to freeze the base
and edges of the treated area.
Breast cancer is cancer that emerges in the cells of the breasts. breast cancer is the most common
cancer detected in women in the United States.
breast cancer awareness and research funding have helped create advances in diagnosing and treating
breast cancer. Breast cancer survival rates have increased, and the number of deaths associated with
this disease is continuing to decrease, largely due to factors such as earlier detection, advanced
treatment, and a better understanding of the disease.
Doctors calculate that about 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are due to gene mutations passed through
generations of a family.
breast lump or thickening that feels different from the surrounding tissue
Signs and Symptoms of breast cancer
A breast clot or heaviness that feels different from the surrounding tissue. Change in the size, and shape
of a breast, Changes to the skin over the breast, newly inverted nipple Nipple changes, Peeling, scaling,
crusting, or flaking of the pigmented area of skin surrounding the nipple or breast skin. Redness or pitting
of the skin over your breast.
Breast cancer treatment options are according to your type of breast cancer, its stage and, size, and
whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones.
mostly women also receive additional treatment before or after surgery such as chemotherapy, hormone
therapy, or radiation.
Breast cancer surgery
Lumpectomy: During this surgery surgeon removes the tumor and a small margin of surrounding healthy
tissue. therefore this may be referred to as breast-conserving surgery.
Mastectomy: This type of surgery is used to remove all of your breast tissue. remove all of the breast
tissue — the lobules, ducts, fatty tissue, and some skin, including the nipple and areola.
Triple-negative breast cancer
The term triple-negative breast cancer is related to the fact that the cancer cells don’t have estrogen or
progesterone receptors (ER or PR) and also don’t make any or too much of the protein called HER2. this
is so-called because of The cells test “negative” on all 3 tests i.e. ER, PR, and HER2.
Colon cancer is a large intestine (colon) cancer, The colon is the final part of the digestive system.
Though it can happen at any age, colon cancer generally affects older adults, It usually begins as small,
noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps that form on the inside of the colon. after some time
these polyps can become colon cancers.
Most people with colon cancer experience no symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Signs and
symptoms of colon cancer include:
Endurance of abdominal discomforts, such as cramps, gas, or pain,
A change in your entrails habits, including diarrhea or constipation or a change in the consistency of your
stool or blood in your stool,
A feeling that your entrails doesn’t empty,
Unnatural weight loss.
Pancreatic cancer occurs in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas releases enzymes needed for
digestion and produces hormones needed for managing your blood sugar. several types of tumors occur
in the pancreas some of them are cancerous some not noncancerous.
Pancreatic cancer is rarely diagnosed at its early stages when it may be curable it is dedected when
reached another part of the body. Signs and symptoms of pancreatic cancer are:
Abdominal pain that continues to your back, Loss of hunger, unexpected weight loss, jaundice, Light-
colored feces, urine becomes dark, uncontrol diabetes.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the
prostate gland, a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and
Like other cancer, this also may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages. although prostate
cancer grows slowly and also restrains the prostate gland.
some common signs and symptoms of prostate cancer are:
A problem in urination, Decreased force in the stream of urine, Blood in the urine, Blood in the semen,
weight loss, and body pain.
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix which is the lower part uterus. the
human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, plays a role in causing most cervical
Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include:
Vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and
have a foul odor
The esophagus is a long, hollow tube that runs from your throat to your stomach when cancer occurs
inside this is called esophageal cancer. esophagus work to move food from your throat to inside the
stomach to digest. it is found that more men than women get esophageal cancer. This is the sixth reason
for more deaths in the whole world so take care of it.
Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer include:
Weight loss, Coughing or hoarseness, Chest pain, pressure, or burning, Difficulty swallowing
(dysphagia), difficulty in indigestion, or heartburn.
Testicles also called testes are part of the male reproductive system when uncontrolled and unnatural
tissues found in this part are referred to as testicular cancer. They are held within a sac of skin called the
scrotum. The scrotum hangs under the base of the penis.
Two main functions
They make male hormones (androgens).
They make sperm, the male cells that are needed to fertilize a female egg for pregnancy.
Cancer occurs in the lungs called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread to lymph
nodes or other organs in the body, such as the heart, and brain. Cancer from other organs also may
spread to the lungs. the spread of cancer from one organ to another organ is referred to as metastases.
People who smoke cigarettes are usually 15 to 30 times more chances to get lung cancer. Active and
passive both kinds of smoking are harmful and raise the risk of lung cancer so avoid places.
Lung cancer symptoms may include—
Coughing that goes on worsening
Chest pain, Coughing up blood.
Shortness of breath.
Feeling very exhausted all the time.
Weight loss for no reason.
Most ovarian cancers start in the ovary’s epithelium or outer lining.
ovarian cancer is now the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death among females in the United
The American Cancer Society (ACS) estimates that in 2022, around 19,880 females in the U.S. may
receive a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Around 12,810 females are likely to die from this disease.
feeling full rapidly when eating
unexpected vaginal bleeding
pain in the back or abdomen
STAGES OF CANCER
Stages help your doctor to decide which treatment will work best for you.
Stage 0: This is the earliest stage of cancer that is still localized to the area in which it started. there is no
cancer yet. Cancers that are still in stage zero are easily treatable.
Stage I: Cancer is localized to a small area and hasn’t spread to lymph nodes or other tissues.
Stage II: Cancer has matured, but it has not spread out.
Stage III: Cancer has grown larger and has possibly spread to lymph nodes or other tissues.
Stage IV: Cancer has spread to other organs or areas of your body. This stage is also referred to as
metastatic or advanced-stage cancer.
In the bulk of cancers, 90–95% of all cases are due to genetic mutations from environmental and lifestyle
changes, and we are responsible for that. The remaining 5–10% are due to inherited genetics.
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